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SPIKY VENTURE CAPITAL

The Geography of Venture Capital Investment
by Metro and Zip Code

Cities
The Cities Project at the Martin Prosperity Institute focuses on the
role of cities as the key economic and social organizing unit of global
capitalism. It explores both the opportunities and challenges facing
cities as they take on this heightened new role.

The Martin Prosperity Institute, housed at the University of Toronto’s
Rotman School of Management, explores the requisite underpinnings
of a democratic capitalist economy that generate prosperity that is
both robustly growing and broadly experienced.
SPIKY VENTURE CAPITAL

The Geography of Venture Capital Investment
by Metro and Zip Code

Richard Florida
Karen M. King
Contents

Executive Summary 6

Introduction8

Venture Capital Investment by Metro 10

Venture Capital Investment per Capita 12

Venture Capital Investment by Zip Code 14

Key Factors in the Geography of Venture Capital Investment 17

Innovation and High-Tech Industry 17

Wages and Income 17

Talent 18

Openness and Diversity 19

Density versus Sprawl 20

Housing, Inequality, and Segregation 21

Conclusion23

Appendix: Variables, Data, and Methodology 24

Correlation Analysis Variables 24

References27

About the Authors 31

4 Spiky Venture Capital
Exhibits

Exhibit 1 Venture Capital Investment in the United States 10

Exhibit 2 Top 20 Metros for Venture Capital Investment in the United States 11

Exhibit 3 Venture Capital Investment in the United States per Capita 12

Exhibit 4 Top 20 Metros by Venture Capital Investment in the United States per Capita 13

Exhibit 5 Venture Capital Investment in the United States by Zip Code 14

Exhibit 6 Top 20 Zip Codes for Venture Capital Investment 15

Exhibit 7 High-Tech and Innovation Correlations 17

Exhibit 8 Wage, Income, and Economic Output Correlations 18

Exhibit 9 Talent Correlations 18

Exhibit 10 Working and Service Class Correlations 18

Exhibit 11 Correlations for Occupations 19

Exhibit 12 Foreign-born and Gay Correlations 20

Exhibit 13 Population and Density Correlations 20

Exhibit 14 Commuting Correlations 20

Exhibit 15 Housing Cost Correlations 21

Exhibit 16 Inequality and Segregation Correlations 22

5 Spiky Venture Capital
Executive Summary

Venture capital investment drives both innovation and high-tech com-
panies, but it remains exclusive to just a handful of regions in the
United States.

This report uses detailed data from Thomson Reuters to examine the
geography of venture capital investment in the United States.

Its main findings are as follows.

• The top 50 metros account for 97 percent of all venture capital
investment; the top 20 account for nearly 90 percent and the top
10 account more than three-quarters of all venture capital invest-
ment nationwide.

• The San Francisco Bay Area is the leading center for venture cap-
ital with $13.5 billion in investment, more than a third of all ven-
ture capital investment in the United States.

• San Francisco tops Silicon Valley with $8.5 billion in investment,
25 percent of the national total. In comparison, San Jose attracts
$4.9 billion, roughly 15 percent.

6 Spiky Venture Capital
• Venture capital investment is


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