Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
Exchange a glance with someone, then look away. Do you realize that you have made a statement? Hold the glance for a second longer, and you have made a different statement. Hold it for 3 seconds, and the meaning has changed again. For every social situation, there is a permissible time that you can hold a person's gaze without being intimate, rude, or aggressive. If you are on an elevator, what gaze-time are you permitted? To answer this question, consider what you typically do. You very likely give other passengers a quick glance to size themup (打量) and to assure them that you mean no threat. Since being close to another person signals the possibility of interaction. You need to emit a signal telling others you want to be left alone. So you cut off eye contact, what sociologist Erving Goffman (1963) calls "a dimming of the lights." You look down at the floor, at the indicator lights, anywhere but into another passenger's eyes. Should you break the rule against staring at a stranger on an elevator, you will make the other person exceedingly uncomfortable, and you are likely to feel a bit strange yourself.
If you hold eye contact for more than 3 seconds, what are you telling another person? Much depends on the person and the situation. For instance, a man and a woman communicate interest in this manner. They typically gaze at each other for about 3 seconds at a time, then drop their eyes down for 3 seconds, before letting their eyes meet again. But if one man gives another man a 3-second-plus stare, he signals, "I know you", "I am interested in you," or "You look peculiar and I am curious about you." This type of stare often produces hostile feelings.
51. It can be inferred form the first paragraph that ________.
A) every glance has its significance
B) staring at a person is an expression of interest
C) a gaze longer than 3 seconds is unacceptable
D) a glance conveys more meaning than words（A）
52. If you want to be left alone on an elevator, the best thing to do is ________.
A) to look into another passenger's eyes
B) to avoid eye contact with other passengers
C) to signal you are not a threat to anyone
D) to keep a distance from other passengers（B）
53. By "a dimming of the lights" (Para. 1, Line 9) Erving Goffman means "________".
A) closing one's eyes
B) turning off the lights
C) creasing to glance at others
D) reducing gaze-time to the minimum（C）
54. If one is looked at by a stranger for too long, he tends to feel ________.
55. The passage mainly discusses ________.
A) the limitations of eye contact
B) the exchange of ideas through eye contact
C) proper behavior in situations
D) the role of eye contact in interpersonal communication（D）
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.
The picnics, speeches, and parades of today's Labor Day were all part of the first celebration, held in New York City in 1882. Its promoter was an Irish-American labor leader named peter J. McGuire. A carpenter by trade, McGuire had worked since the age of eleven, and in 1882 was president of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners (UBCJ). Approaching the City's Central Labor Union that summer, he proposed a holiday that would applaud (赞许)"the industrial spirit-the great vital force of every nation," On September 5 his suggestion bore fruit, as an estimated 10,000 workers, many of them ignoring their bosses' warnings, left work to march from Union square up Fifth Avenue to 42nd Street. The event gained national attention, and by 1893 thirty states had made Labor Day an annual holiday.
The quick adoption of the scheme may have indicated less about the state lawmakers' respect for working people than about a fear of risking their anger. In the 1880s the United States was a land sharply divided between the immensely wealthy and the very poor. Henry George was accurate in describing the era as one of "progress and poverty." In a society in which factory, owners rode in private Pullmans while ten-year-olds slaved in the mines, strong anti-capitalist feeling ran high. Demands for fundamental change were common throughout the labor press. With socialists demanding an end to "wage slavery" and anarchists (无政府主义) singing the praises of the virtues of dynamite (炸药), middle-of-the-roaders like Samuel Gompers and McGuire seemed attractively mild by comparison. One can imagine practical capitalists seeing Labor Day as a bargain: A one-day party certainly cost them less than paying their workers decent wages.
56. Judging from the passage, McGuire was ________.
A) a moderate labor leader
B) an extreme-anarchist in the labor movement
C) a devoted socialist fighting against exploitation of man by man
D) a firm anti-capitalist demanding the elimination of wage slavery（A）
57. We can see from the first paragraph that the first Labor Day march ________.
A) immediately won nationwide support
B) involved workers from 30 states
C) was opposed by many factory owners
D) was organized by the UBCJ（C）
58. Which of the following is the key factor in the immediate approval of Labor Day as a national holiday?
A) The lawmakers' respect for the workers.
B) The worker's determination to have a holiday of their own.
C) The socialists' demands for thorough reform.
D) The politicians' fear of the workers' anger.（D）
59. We lean from the passage that the establishment of Labor Day ________.
A) was accepted by most bosses as a compromise
B) marked a turning point in the workers' struggle for more rights
C) indicated the improvement of the workers' welfare
D) signaled the end of "wage slavery"（A）
60. McGuire proposed Labor Day in order to ________.
A) draw people's attention to the striking contrast between the rich and the poor
B) make prominent the important role of the working class in society
C) win for the workers the right to shorter working hours
D) expose the exploitation of the workers by their bosses（B）
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
In the old day, children were familiar with birth and death as part of life. This is perhaps the first generation of American youngsters (年轻人) who have never been close by during the birth of a baby and have never experienced the death of a family member.
Nowadays when people grow old, we often send them to nursing homes. When they get sick, we transfer them to a hospital, where children are forbidden to visit terminally ill patients-even when those patients are their parents. This deprives (剥夺) the dying patient of significant family members during the last few days of his life and it deprives the children of an experience of death, which is an important learning experience.
Some of my colleagues and I once interviewed and followed approximately 500 terminally ill patients in order to find out what they could teach us and how we could be of more benefit, not just to them but to the members of their families as well. We are most impressed by the fact that even those patients who were not told of their serious illness were quite aware of its potential outcome.
It is important for family members, and doctors and nurses to understand these patients' communications in order to truly understand their needs, fears, and fantasies (幻想). Most of our patients welcomed another human being with whom they could talk openly, honestly, and frankly about their trouble. Many of them shared with us their tremendous need to be informed, to be kept up-to-date on their medical condition and to be told when the end was near. We found out that patients who had been dealt with openly and frankly were better able to cope with the approach of death and finally to reach a true stage of acceptance prior to death.
61. The elders of contemporary Americans ________.
A) were often absent when a family member was born or dying
B) were quite unfamiliar with birth and death
C) usually witnessed the birth or death of a family member
D) had often experienced the fear of death as part of life（C）
62. Children in America today are denied the chance ________.
A) to learn how to face death
B) to visit dying patients
C) to attend to patients
D) to have access to a hospital（B）
63. Five hundred critically ill patients were investigated with the main purpose of ________.
A) observing how they reacted to the crisis of death
B) helping them and their families overcome the fear of death
C) finding out their attitude towards the approach of death
D) learning how to best help them and their families（D）
64. The need of a dying patient for company shows ________.
A) his desire for communication with other people
B) his fear of approaching death
C) his pessimistic attitude towards his condition
D) his reluctance to part with his family（A）
65. It may be concluded from the passage that ________.
A) dying patients are afraid of being told of the approach of death
B) most doctors and nurses understand what dying patients need
C) dying patients should be truthfully informed of their condition
D) most patients are unable to accept death until it is obviously inevitable（C）
Questions 66 to 70 are based on the following passage.
Faces, like fingerprints, are unique. Did you ever wonder how it is possible for us to recognize people. Even a skilled writer probably could not describe all the features that make one face different from another. Yet a very young child-or even an animal, such as a pigeon-can learn to recognize faces, we all take this ability for granted.
We also tell people apart by how they behave. When we talk about someone's personality, we mean the ways in which he or she acts, speaks thinks and feels that make that individual different from others.
Like the human face, human personality is very complex. But describing someone's personality in words is somewhat easier than describing his face. If you were asked to describe what a "nice face" looked like, you probably would have a difficult time doing so. But if you were asked to describe a "nice person", you might begin to think about someone who was kind considerate, friendly, warm, and so forth.
There are many words to describe how a person thinks, feels and acts. Gordon Allport, an American psychologist, found nearly 18,000 English words characterizing differences in people's behavior. And many of us use this information as a basis for describing, or typing, his personality. Bookworms, conservatives, military types-people are described with such terms.
People have always tried to "type" each other. Actors in early Greek drama wore masks to show the audience whether they played the villain's (坏人) or the hero's role. In fact, the words "person" and "personality" come from the Latin persona, meaning "mask". Today, most television and movie actors do not wear masks. But we can easily tell the "good guys" from the "bad guys" because the two types differ in appearance as well as inactions.
66. By using the example of finger prints, the author tells us that ________.
A) people can learn to recognize faces
B) people have different personalities
C) people have difficulty in describing the features of finger prints
D) people differ from each other in facial features（D）
67. According to this passage, some animals have the gift of ________.
A) telling people apart by how they behave
B) typing each other
C) telling good people from had people
D) recognizing human faces（D）
68. Who most probably knows best how to describe people's personality?
A) The ancient Greek audience
B) The movie actors
D) The modern TV audience（C）
69. According to the passage, it is possible for us tell one type of person from another because ________.
A) people differ in their behavioral and physical characteristics
B) human fingerprints provide unique information
C) people's behavior can be easily described in words
D) human faces have complex features（A）
70. Which of the following is the major point of the passage?
A) Why it is necessary to identify people's personality
B) Why it is possible to describe people
C) How to get to know people
D) How best to recognize people（B）
分享于 2011-07-09 03:01:00